A3.1 This appendix provides further information and guidance to interpret and supplement the development management policies that relate to transportation. In particular, it applies to policies DM28, DM31 and DM33 and contains the standards that will apply to all development for which planning permission is sought.
A3.2 Advice on site specific works that are necessary to facilitate access to the development are not included (see policy DM30) and these must be considered. Consistency with these standards is not in itself, therefore, sufficient to demonstrate that a given proposal is acceptable either in transportation or planning terms.
A3.3 Norwich city centre has one of the largest surviving mediaeval street layouts in the UK and thus has very specific parking and access requirements. These are reflected within this appendix. Additionally, transportation requirements have been adjusted to suit the particular location and function of proposed developments. The areas and locations to which the individual standards apply can be found on the Policies map.
The role of design
A3.4 The city council has emphasised the importance of good design in all submitted planning applications for many years, including the need for suitable landscaping. Car parking and servicing areas are rarely attractive visually and should be designed to minimise their impact on the immediate townscape and landscape in accordance with policies DM3 and DM28.
Contributions to strategic and local transport infrastructure
A3.5 National and local transport policies result from a growing realisation that the cost of inefficient use of transport infrastructure is too high in both environmental and financial terms. However, as developments are rarely without transport impact, developments are expected to support the provision of necessary transport infrastructure, and within the City boundary, sustainable transport infrastructure in particular. The delivery of infrastructure, and measures to encourage sustainable transport, is essential to mitigate the transport impacts of development, to plan for sustainable development in accordance with the requirements of the NPPF and support the expansion of business and the local economy whilst protecting the local environment.
A3.6 Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL) charging is the primary means of funding strategic transport infrastructure. This largely replaces funding previously delivered through planning obligation agreements for individual development schemes. The December 2011 announcement of government funding for part construction of the Norwich northern distributor road (NDR) is conditional on agreeing a package of sustainable transport measures within the city boundary. The council will therefore seek to ensure that a proportion of CIL receipts at least equivalent to that which would have been payable under the previous planning obligation-based system will be retained to fund the necessary sustainable transport infrastructure in Norwich.
A3.7 In addition to the strategic infrastructure delivered through CIL, it will be necessary in most cases to address the more localised transportation impacts of development by means of essential off-site works, including improvements to highway or footway, traffic regulation orders and site specific travel plans to encourage sustainable travel choices. So long as they are fairly and reasonably necessary to make development acceptable in planning terms, such measures will continue to be funded by means of site specific planning obligations, the scope of which are outlined in policy DM33.
A3.8 The council may agree that the contribution to be used for sustainable transport infrastructure is used for a particular project, or within a specific geographical area, and could be provided by the developer as ‘in kind’ works. Where agreement is reached that a particular payment will be used for a specific project this will be provided within a reasonable time, although it may be necessary to await the accumulation of funds to help provide finance, for example, for a new whole car park for Park and Ride. However, where contributions are used for a specific purpose, it is not the intention that any particular improvement will be exclusively for users of a particular development but will form part of the larger transport system available to all.
A3.9 Policy DM28 requires larger developments to be supported by a Travel Plan. Developers will need to show that every effort has been made to ensure that local facilities and public transport are accessible. Developments, particularly those that have high levels of trip generation, should be sited and designed to maximise access by all modes of transport and will be expected to support appropriate transportation measures off-site. Those developments which have limited levels of access, particularly by non car modes, will be expected to support proportionately more measures to deal with the consequences of their proposals. Travel Plans will need to monitored and consequent actions agreed, and a fee will be payable in respect of this. In addition, a bond can be required to ensure that obligations to deliver travel plans are met.
Travel information plans
A3.10 Most smaller developments will need to be supported by a Travel Information Plan. The aim of this is to ensure that users of a particular development are made aware of the transport opportunities available. A template is available for applicants to complete with assistance from Norfolk County Council travel plan officers.
Transport statements and transport assessments
A3.11 Transport Statements (TS) and Transport assessments (TA) are intended to help us ensure that new developments take full account of local transport policy and strategy. This will allow the transport implications of proposed developments to be properly considered and, where appropriate, will help identify suitable measures to achieve a more sustainable and environmentally sound outcome. The nature and extent of any assessment or statement will depend upon the location, scale and type of development involved. The scale of development at which either a statement or assessment is required is detailed in the parking standards.
A3.12 Policy DM30 seeks to ensure that all new accesses are appropriate to the location. Whilst it may be appropriate in low traffic areas for individual driveways, service yards and parking spaces to access directly onto the street, as a general principle, developers should aim to ensure that vehicular access to a site allows for vehicles to enter and leave in forward gear.
A3.13 The car parking standards set both minimum and maximum levels for car parking and parking provision. Lower levels of car parking provision than the standards permit will be permitted provided that the transportation consequences of the development will be addressed, but minimum levels will normally be required, particularly for parking for disabled drivers. The following diagrams show the recommended minimum dimension of parking spaces, and associated layouts.
A3.14 Within the most central part of the city only operational car parking is permitted, and the standards are consistent with those that have been applied for many years. These take account of the high levels of accessibility that the city centre enjoys by all transport modes, and the need to reduce overall levels of traffic within this historic area. Operational parking is to facilitate necessary movement of vehicles to and from the site throughout the working day and is not for the long-term commuter parking.
A3.15 Outside the city centre, developments should contain all of their associated servicing requirements within the curtilage of the site and enable vehicular access and egress in forward gear. The parking standards detail specific parking and servicing requirements for each Use Class category and should be regarded as the figure normally required for a typical Use Class category and should be accommodated within the development site. Where parking is required ‘on street’ it is expected that this will be within a new street created as part of the development. Only exceptionally will the use of existing on-street space be permitted.
Controlled parking zones and permit parking
A3.16 New developments will not be eligible for parking permits within existing permit parking areas. In very exceptional circumstances where there is a clear gain in terms of the built form that is achieved and changes can be made to existing on-street arrangements without the loss of parking for existing users that would reasonably provide for the demand of the development proposed, it may be possible, at the discretion of the Highways Authority, to extend permit entitlement within existing zones.
A3.17 Within the controlled parking zones, where new streets are proposed to include on-street parking provision, a permit parking scheme particular to the development will need to be developed as part of the proposals. In any event, any new street will need to be subject to on-street parking controls, and become part of the Controlled Parking Zone.
A3.18 In all these cases, changes to existing Traffic Regulation Orders, and the installation of the necessary signing and lining within or around the development will need to be undertaken at the developer’s expense.
Provision for people with disabilities
A3.19 Many sections of the community do not have full access to the facilities that they need owing to a lack of personal mobility. Whilst improvements in the built environment help to reduce this exclusion, and public transport is becoming increasingly accessible, some members of the community would be unable to gain access to facilities, and maintain a reasonable degree of independence without the use of a car. Therefore a minimum specific car parking requirement for disabled drivers is included within these standards (usually 5%, although a higher level (20%) is required in the central area, where general parking levels are substantially restrained). Where car parking at less than the maximum level is proposed, the number of spaces for disabled drivers should be calculated as if the maximum level had been provided as required in the minimum standard. These parking spaces should be located close to an accessible entrance. The entrance should ideally be under cover, clearly signed and not more than 50 metres from the designated parking spaces.
Provision for electric vehicles
A3.20 Electric vehicle technology has advanced considerably in recent years, and there is now an expectation that electric vehicles will become a small, but significant part of the number of private vehicles on the road. To facilitate this, charging facilities will need to be made available both in peoples’ homes and at the location they visit. Charging is likely to be undertaken primarily at home, and hence there is a requirement for all new homes to have access to a charging point, either within a garage, or in a communal location. Elsewhere, a small proportion (around 0.5%) of spaces is expected to be provided with a charging facility. More details of our requirements for electric vehicle charging can be found in the appendix.
A3.21 The city council actively supports cycling, and inadequate cycle parking is one of the major blocks to increased cycle usage. Therefore, cycle parking to at least the levels contained within the standards will be required within all developments. The standards are intended to provide for increased cycle usage, and will, therefore, appear a little high if compared to current cycle use.
A3.22 The cycle parking standards have been divided into two categories; dependent upon the expected duration of anticipated cycle parking: Short-term: Stands which are easily accessible, visible and normally adjacent to (certainly within 25 metres of) a main entrance to a building. These stands are aimed principally at visitors to the premises whose visit is likely to be of short duration. Covered protection from rain is desirable, particularly where visitors are likely to remain at the premises for some time. Long-term: Stands having good weather protection and excellent security, e.g. CCTV, locked shed or enclosure, etc. These facilities should be well lit and conveniently located for access to the premises. These are for long-term users of the premises, for example, members of staff in the case of business premises, or residents of housing developments.
A3.23 The Broxap CaMden cycle stand, named for its distinctive M shape, is now recommended by the city council. CaMden stands promote more secure locking because they make it easier for cyclists to keep bicycles upright and to lock both wheels and the frame. As was the case with the Sheffield stand in common use in recent years, the CaMden design allows for up to two cycle parking spaces per stand, and does not damage the cycles. A heritage version of the Sheffield stand, called the Norwich octagonal, is available from suppliers and is suitable in conservation areas. Other types of cycle stand will be considered on their merits.
Servicing and refuse collection
A3.24 All developments will need to provide adequate facilities for servicing and this will include designing estate roads to cater adequately for the nature of vehicles likely to be using the area. In all cases, this will require that roads and junctions are capable of handling a large refuse truck, which is likely to be the largest vehicle accessing residential areas, but large commercial developments will be required to facilitate access by articulated vehicles. Tracking assessments may be required to demonstrate that the development is accessible to the appropriate vehicles.
A3.25 Ideally, schemes should be designed so that service and refuse collection vehicles do not have to reverse or make ‘three point turns’ as turning heads are often obstructed by parked vehicles and reversing creates a risk to other street users. Where it is necessary to provide for turning or reversing (e.g. in a cul-de-sac), a tracking assessment should be made to indicate the types of vehicles that may be making this manoeuvre and how they can be accommodated. Notwithstanding these requirements, the design of streets and spaces will primarily take account of the local environment to avoid these public spaces being dominated by vehicles. To be effective and usable, the areas these larger vehicles require to access the development need to be kept clear of parked vehicles and on-street parking controls, or specifically designed parking areas might be required to ensure access is maintained.
A3.26 In many locations (and almost always in the case of residential developments) servicing will be permitted from the street as detailed in the parking standards. Where service bays are necessary, the following diagrams are offered as guidance:
A3.27 In addition to the access requirements for vehicles, adequate provision for the storage and collection of refuse must be made in all developments. Standards for commercial development have not been given, as these vary significantly between different industries within use classes, and need to be designed with the end user in mind. In the case of residential developments, however, the nature and volume of storage required is more predictable, and consequently, the required volumes of refuse storage can be planned for in advance. An updated and detailed advice note on refuse bin provision is available from the Norwich City Council transportation department on request.
Refuse bin provision in residential developments
A3.28 Enough space needs to be provided to cater for the following levels of bin provision. This level of provision ensures that adequate storage is provided to enable anticipated increased levels of recycling. It might not reflect current requirements for existing collection regimes, but is intended to ensure that sufficient flexibility is built in to allow for changing practice and requirements over time.
A3.29 Normally (in both housing and flatted developments) centralised and communal facilities will be provided. These will consist of facility for:
- One 1100 litre bin for every six households (some leeway allowed for smaller or larger units) for non-recyclable waste (i.e. about 200 litres per household);
- Three separate bins providing an equivalent volume (approximately) of storage for recyclable materials (e.g. if one 1100 litre bin would be required for general waste, then three 360 litre bins will be needed for recyclables). A development requiring three 1100 litre bins for non-recyclables would require the same again for recyclables.
A3.30 Where wheelie bin collection is envisaged, provision is to be made for a minimum standing area for three wheelie bins for each household (usually 240 litres each).
A3.31 Refuse collection points (particularly for 1100 litre bins) should be sited within five metres of the public highway, and have a level access to the carriageway, but please be aware that there are requirements under the Building Regulations to ensure that bins are within a reasonable distance of people’s homes.
Wheeled bin sizes
A3.32 Please note that these bin sizes are for guidance only. The actual sizes of bins vary by manufacturer, and the material of construction. Bin stores need to be adequately sized to allow manoeuvring of the bins, and lifting of lids.
Contact: Transportation department, Norwich City Council, St Peters Street Norwich, NR2 1NH. Email email@example.com
Click on the links below to view the city council’s detailed parking and servicing standards for different uses (links open as individual pdf files)
Use Class A1, A2, A3, A4 and A5 - Shops, High Street Offices, Restaurants, Drinking Establishments and Takeaways
Use Class B1 (part) - Offices, High Tech and research units
Use Classes B2 and B8, and part B1 - Industrial and Warehousing units
Use Class C2 and C2A - Residential Institutions and secure residential institutions
Use Class C3 - Housing
Use Class C4 - Housing in Multiple Occupation
Use Class D1 - Health Centres and Surgeries
Part Use Class D1 - Nursery Schools, Day Nurseries and Day-care Centres
Part Use Class D1 - Other Educational Establishments
Part use class D1, Use Class D2 and analogous sui generis uses - Buildings for assembly and leisure, theatres, other congregational uses (including churches and church halls)