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Appendix 4: Glossary

Accessible: In the case of Community Facilities and services (such as healthcare); easy to travel to or use. With reference to buildings or public transport; easy to enter and use by all.


Affordable Housing: Social Rented, Affordable Rented and Intermediate Housing, provided to eligible households whose needs are not met by the market. Eligibility is determined with regard to local incomes and local house prices. It should include provision for the home to remain at an affordable price for future eligible households or, if these restrictions are lifted, for the subsidy to be recycled for alternative affordable housing provision.

Tenure definitions:

Social Rented Housing:

Rented housing owned and managed by local authorities and registered social landlords, for which guideline target rents are determined through the national rent regime. It may also include rented housing owned or managed by other persons and provided under equivalent rental arrangements to the above, as agreed with the local authority or with the Homes and Communities Agency as a condition of grant.


Affordable Rented Housing:

Rented housing let by Registered Providers of social housing to households who are eligible for Social Rented housing. Affordable Rent is not subject to the national rent regime but is subject to other rent controls that require a rent of no more than 80 per cent of the local market rent.


Intermediate Affordable Housing:

Housing at prices and rents above those of Social Rented, but below market price or rents, and which meet the criteria set out above. These can include shared equity, other low cost homes for sale and Intermediate Rent but does not include Affordable Rented housing.


The definition does not exclude homes provided by private sector bodies or provided without grant funding. Where such homes meet the definition above, they may be considered, for planning purposes, as Affordable Housing. Those homes that do not meet the definition, for example, ‘low cost market’ housing, may not be considered, for planning purposes, as Affordable Housing.


Air Quality Management Areas: Areas designated by the local authority because they are not likely to achieve national air quality objectives by the relevant deadlines. With regard to the Norwich Policy Area this encompasses a single area of central Norwich that largely (but not exclusively) follows the Inner Ring Road.


Allocated: Land identified for a specific use in the current Local Plan.


Amenity: The desirable features of a place that ought to be protected or enhanced in the public interest. This includes those qualities of life enjoyed by people which can be influenced by the surrounding environment, including  privacy, noise nuisance, light pollution, internal space and light.


Ancient Woodland: An area that has been wooded continuously since at least 1600 AD.


Annual Monitoring Report: Regular reports produced across authority boundaries and specific to Norwich and greater Norwich setting out how the Local Plan is performing against its objectives and targets and covering progress on the Duty to Cooperate.


Aquifer: Underground layer of rock in which water naturally occurs, and from which it can be extracted by means of wells and boreholes.


Archaeological Assessment (desk based): A programme of assessment of the known or potential archaeological resource within a specified area or site.  It consists of written, graphic, photographic and electronic information identifying the likely character, extent, quality and worth of the known or potential archaeological resource in its context.


Archaeological Interest: There will be archaeological interest in a Heritage Asset if it holds, or potentially may hold, evidence of past human activity worthy of expert investigation at some point. Heritage Assets with archaeological interest are the primary source of evidence about the substance and evolution of places, and of the people and cultures that made them.


Area Action Plan (AAP): An individual local plan within the Development Plan that establishes a set of development proposals and policies for a specific area, and a timetable for their implementation.


Article 4 Direction: A direction which withdraws automatic planning permission granted by the General Permitted Development Order in a defined area.


Asset of Community Value: A building or land identified by a local community as being of importance to their social well-being, and designated as an Asset of Community Value by the local authority.


Backland: Area of land surrounded and enclosed by other buildings and having no frontage or direct means of access onto a highway.


Bedspaces: The maximum number of full size beds which can be accommodated in the sleeping area of a house


Biodiversity: The different types of plant and animal life found in a particular region/area.


Birds and Habitats Directives: European Directives to conserve natural habitats and wild fauna and flora.


Brownfield Land/ Brownfield Site: Land/site which has been previously developed.


Brown Roofs and Walls: A non seeded green roof which allows local plant species to populate the roof over time, thus harmonising its appearance with its immediate surroundings.


Built Environment: The man-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from personal shelter to neighbourhoods to the large-scale civic surroundings.


Bulky Goods Retailing: The sale of Comparison Goods which are too large to transport on foot (e.g. DIY goods, large white electrical goods, carpets and flat pack furniture) usually purchased from a large single level store.


Bus Rapid Transit (BRT): Bus based public transport service providing more frequent and faster services than an ordinary bus route, achieved by making improvements to existing infrastructure, vehicles, ticketing and scheduling.


Business Use: Land use class covering light industry, offices, research and development. Small and Medium Scale Businesses are classed as businesses with a net floorspace of less than 1,500sqm.


Car Club: Arrangement whereby an organisation (usually non-profit making) maintains a pool of cars or other vehicles available for shared use by its members.


Car Free Housing: Housing development with no parking provision.


Child Bedspace: Any bedroom additional to the first bedroom in a dwelling (up to a maximum of 3) excluding any rooms specifically designed for Older people or people with disabilities.


City Centre: The main commercial, retail and leisure area of Norwich as set out on the Policies map (City Centre Inset).


City Region: A term used to describe not just the administrative area of a city but the area surrounding it which is economically, socially and culturally dependant on the city.


Climate Change Adaptation: Adjustments to natural or human systems in

response to actual or expected climatic factors or their effects, including from changes in rainfall and rising temperatures, which moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities.


Climate Change Mitigation: Action to reduce the impact of human activity on the climate system, primarily through reducing greenhouse gas emissions.


Commitments: Development proposals which already have planning permission or are Allocated in adopted Development Plans.


Communications/Telecommunications Infrastructure: The facilities, plant and networks employed to transmit and receive information by electrical or electronic means.


Community Engagement Strategy: An on-going process through which the local authority and communities and/or individuals or other organisations build relationships for the purpose of applying a collective vision for the benefit of a community.


Community Facilities/Uses: Facilities and uses generally available to and used by the local community at large for the purposes of leisure, social interaction, health and well-being or learning. This will include, but not be confined to, community centres, historic and community public houses, premises for indoor sport, leisure and cultural centres, places of worship, doctor’s surgeries/ health centres, crèches, playgroups, libraries, schools and other training and educational facilities.


Community Infrastructure Levy: A levy allowing local authorities to raise funds from owners or developers of land undertaking new building projects in their area. CIL is levied on a wider range of developments and in accordance with a published tariff or charging schedule. This spreads the cost of funding infrastructure and provides certainty to developer of how much they will have to pay. In addition, the charging authority must produce a Regulation 123 list of the infrastructure projects CIL monies will be spent on.


Community Right to Build Order: A parish council or neighbourhood forum can bring forward development proposals which, providing they meet the minimum criteria and are supported through a referendum, can go ahead without the need of planning permission or consent. Thereafter, an Order is made by the local planning authority on behalf of the local community that grants planning permission for such a site specific development proposal or class of development.


Commuted Payment: Payment made by a developer to the local planning authority (usually secured by means of a Planning Obligation) to fund provision of a facility needed to serve a development, but to be built or provided elsewhere or in some way other than by the developer.


Comparison Goods: Household or personal items which are usually purchased after comparing alternative models/types/styles and the price of the item (e.g. clothes, furniture, electrical appliances).


Complementary Uses: Uses within a building or wider area which support each other.


Conservation (for heritage policy): The process of maintaining and managing change to a Heritage Asset in a way that sustains and, where appropriate, enhances its significance.


Conservation Area: Area of special historic and/or architectural interest which is designated by the Local Planning Authority as being important to conserve and enhance. Special planning controls apply within these areas.


Controlled Parking Zone (CPZ): Zone in which the duration and nature of all parking on the highway is controlled to give priority to parking for residents and local businesses and those visiting them.


Convenience Goods: Items bought for everyday needs, including food and other groceries, newspapers, drink and tobacco and chemist’s goods.


Core Strategy: The spatial planning strategy that sets out long-term objectives for planning across the authority area.[1]


County Geodiversity Sites (CGS): A site designated for its features of interest for geodiversity by the Norfolk CGS Group.


County Wildlife Site: Wildlife habitat identified and designated as being of particular local interest of importance by Norfolk County Council and the Norfolk Wildlife Trust.


Critical Drainage Catchments: Areas in which development is likely to contribute to an elevated risk of surface water flooding in the most flood vulnerable areas within those catchments. The areas at the greatest risk of flooding (previously referred to as Critical Drainage Areas) are identified in the Norwich Urban Area Surface Water Management Plan.


Decentralised and Renewable or Low-carbon Energy Sources: Sources of energy that are renewable or low-carbon (or a combination of these) and locally based (on-site or near-site, but not remote off-site), usually on a relatively small-scale. Decentralised energy is a broad term used to denote a diverse range of technologies, including micro-renewables, which can locally serve an individual building, development or wider community and includes heating and cooling energy.


Density (Housing development): A measure of the average concentration of housing within a given area (normally expressed as n dwellings per hectare). Net density is a more refined measure of the actual area developed for housing purposes and excludes open space, major distributor roads, landscaped strips and primary school sites from the calculation of the developed area.


Development: Defined in planning law as ‘the carrying out of building, engineering, mining or other operations in, on, over, or under land, or the making of a material change of use of any building or land’.


Development Brief: A document describing and leading the form and layout of development in a prescribed area.


Development Plan: The plan for the future development of the local area, drawn up by the local planning authority in consultation with the community. In law this is described as the development plan documents (local plans) adopted under the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004. Current core strategies or other planning policies, which under the regulations would be considered to be local plans, form part of the development plan. The term includes old policies which have been saved under the 2004 Act. Previously referred to as the Local Development Framework. The development plan includes adopted Local Plans and Neighbourhood Plans and is defined in section 38 of the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004.


Development Plan Document: see Local Plan


District Centre: A group of shops containing one supermarket and other services and providing for a catchment area extending beyond the immediate locality.


Duty to Cooperate: Section 110 of the Localism Act sets out the ‘duty to cooperate'. This duty relates to Sustainable Development or use of land that would have a significant impact on at least two local planning areas or on a planning matter that falls within the remit of a county council. It requires that councils set out planning policies to address such issues and that they engage constructively, actively and on an ongoing basis to develop strategic policies and adopt joint approaches to plan making. Paragraph 156 of the NPPF sets out the strategic issues where cooperation might be appropriate.


Economic Development: Development, including those within the B Use Classes, public and Community Uses and main town centre uses (but excluding housing development).


Ecological Networks: These link sites of biodiversity importance. See Green Infrastructure.


Edge of Centre: For retail purposes, a location that is well connected and up to 300 metres of the primary shopping area. For all other main town centre uses, a location within 300 metres of a town centre boundary. For office development, this includes locations outside the town centre but within 500 metres of a public transport interchange. In determining whether a site falls within the definition of edge of centre, account should be taken of local circumstances.


Employment Use: Use primarily for industrial, warehousing, office or other business uses falling within classes b1, b2 and b8 of the use classes order.


Environmental Impact Assessment: A procedure to be followed for certain types of project to ensure that decisions are made in full knowledge of any likely significant effects on the environment and as required by the Environmental Impact Assessment Directive 2011.


Environmental Statement: Written statement, submitted with certain kinds of planning application, which set out the anticipated effects of the proposed development. Such statements deal with the full environment effects of major development proposals and include any mitigation measures needed under the Town and Country Planning (Environmental Impact Assessment) Regulations 1999.


European Site: A site which is recognised under European Legislation as having significance because of its wildlife interest. This includes Special Areas of Conservation, Sites of Community Importance, Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protection Areas, and is defined in regulation 8 of the Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations 2010.


Evening Economy Uses: Defined as café s and restaurants falling within the present A3 class of the Town & Country Planning (Use Class) Order 1995 (as amended), and A4 drinking establishments which do not routinely operate past 12(midnight) but which operate beyond normal trading hours of the retail areas. Each premise will be assessed on a case-by-case basis as to whether it falls within this category or that of a Hospitality or Late Night Use (see below).


Flood Areas: (As defined by the Environment Agency)

  • Flood Zone 2: comprises land assessed as having between a 1 in 100 and 1 in 1,000 annual probability of river flooding (1% – 0.1%) or between a 1 in 200 and 1 in 1,000 annual probability of sea flooding (0.5% – 0.1%) in any year.
  • Flood Zone 3a: comprises land assessed as having a 1 in 100 or greater annual probability of river flooding (>1%) or a 1 in 200 or greater annual probability of sea flooding (>0.5%) in any year.
  • Functional flood plain (3b): defined as land where water has to flow or be stored in times of flood
  • Any other land is classed as Flood Zone 1; land at no appreciable risk of flooding from rivers or tidal flooding.

Flood Types:

  • River Flooding: River flooding happens when a river or stream cannot cope with the water draining into it from the surrounding land - for example, when heavy rain falls on the ground that is already waterlogged.
  • Surface water flooding: This occurs when rainwater does not drain away through the normal drainage systems or soak into the ground, but lies on or flows over the ground instead.
  • Sewer flooding: This occurs when sewers are overwhelmed by heavy rainfall or when they become blocked.
  • Groundwater flooding: This occurs when levels of water in the ground rise above the surface. It can affect property and structures above and below the ground.


Flood Risk Assessment (FRA): A document to consider the principles of the sustainable drainage of surface water, for use where works may affect watercourses or flood defences, or, for use where a Critical Drainage Area has been identified by the Environment Agency, or where the Local Planning Authority (LPA) has identified that a drainage problem exists on which they would like assurance from the developer that flood risk has been addressed. A FRA is required to ensure flood risk to the proposed development is considered, as well as the impact the development will have elsewhere on people and property. The scale, nature and location of the proposed development will inform the scope of the FRA required.


Gateway: One of a number of key locations situated at, and marking the entrance to, the Norwich built up area or to Norwich city centre.


Geodiversity: The variety of rocks, minerals, fossils, soils and landforms.


Greenfield Land (or site): Land which has not previously been built on. This includes residential garden land.


Green Infrastructure: Green spaces and interconnecting green corridors in urban areas, the countryside in and around towns and rural settlements, and in the wider countryside. It includes natural green spaces colonised by plants and animals and dominated by natural processes and man-made managed green spaces such as areas used for outdoor sport and recreation including public and private open space, allotments, urban parks and designed historic landscapes as well as their many interconnections like footpaths, cycleways, green corridors and waterways.


Green Networks: A network of multi-functional green space, both urban and rural, which is capable of delivering a wide range of environmental and quality of life benefits for local communities.


Green Roof and Walls: A green roof/wall is a roof/wall is partially or completely covered with vegetation and a growing medium, planted over a waterproofing membrane. It may also include additional layers such as a root barrier and drainage and irrigation systems.


Grey water: Any water that has been used in the home (except water from toilets). Dish washer, shower, sink and laundry water comprises 50-80% of residential waste water which can be reused for other purposes.


Habitats Regulation Assessment: Analysis of the impact of plans and strategies on areas of designated European environmental importance such as Special Protection Areas, Special Areas of Conservation and Ramsar sites.


Health and Safety Executive Areas: Sites and installations which have quantities of hazardous substances present on-site and as designated as a notable hazard by the HSE.


Health Impact Assessment: An assessment to judge whether development proposals may have an impact on health or health inequality in terms of its effects on health and social care services, or wider lifestyle related considerations or factors such as crime, social cohesion, movement or air pollution, for example.


Heritage Asset: A building, monument, site, place, area or landscape identified as having a degree of significance meriting consideration in planning decisions, because of its Heritage Interest. Heritage Asset includes designated heritage assets and assets identified by the local planning authority (including Local Listing).

They include:

  • Designated Heritage Asset: A World Heritage Site, Scheduled Monument, Listed Building, Protected Wreck Site, Registered Park or Garden, Registered Battlefield or Conservation Area designated under the relevant legislation.
  • Locally Identified Heritage Asset: A building or structure which has been identified by the City Council as having some historic or architectural merit as a Locally Listed Building but which is not of sufficient quality to be included in the statutory List.
  • Undesignated Heritage Asset: A Heritage Asset not previously identified or designated, but identified during the pre-application process, planning application process or during development and subject to the same criteria as a Heritage Asset (see above) as being a building, monument, sites, place, area or landscape identified as having a degree of significance meriting consideration in planning decisions, because of its heritage interest.

See also Conservation Area, Listed Building, Setting of a heritage asset.


Heritage Interpretation: A means of disseminating information on the historic environment to the general public, frequently in the form of interpretation boards and/or site open days and tours.


High Quality Office Space: Grade A (new or recently refurbished, in prime accessible locations) or Grade B (good standard with adequate facilities and accessibility) Office development


Historic Environment: All aspects of the environment resulting from the interaction between people and places through time, including all surviving physical remains of past human activity, whether visible, buried or submerged, and landscaped and planted or managed flora.


Historic Environment Record: Information services that seek to provide access to comprehensive and dynamic resources relating to the historic environment of a defined geographic area for public benefit and use.


Hospitality Establishments: Uses offering food and/or drink to customers for consumption on the premises. Including, but not exclusive to, café s and restaurants falling within the present A3 class of the Use Classes Order, and A4 drinking establishments which do not routinely operate past 12(midnight). Each premise will be assessed on a case-by-case basis as to whether it falls within this category or that of a Late Night Use.


House of Multiple Occupation: The 1985 Housing Act definition of “House in Multiple Occupation” was a “house which is occupied by persons who do not form a single household”: Use Class C4 under the present Use Classes Order (if between 3 and 6 people), or Sui Generis if 7 people or more.


Inclusive Design: Designing the built environment, including buildings and their surrounding spaces, to ensure that they can be accessed and used by everyone.


Index of Multiple Deprivation: A ward-level index made up from six indicators (income; employment; health deprivation and disability; education; skills and training; housing; and geographical access to services) to enable comparison of relative levels of deprivation.


Infill Development: Small-scale development filling a gap within an otherwise built up area.


Infrastructure: The network of services to which it is usual for most buildings or activities to be connected. It includes physical services serving the particular development (e.g. gas, electricity and water supply; telephones, sewerage) and also includes networks of roads, public transport routes, footpaths etc. as well as community facilities and green infrastructure.


International, national and locally designated sites of importance for biodiversity: All international sites (Special Areas of Conservation, Special Protection Areas, and Ramsar sites), national sites (Sites of Special Scientific Interest) and locally designated sites including Local Wildlife Sites.


Landmark Building: A building or structure that stands out from its background by virtue of height, size or some other aspect of design.


Large District Centre: A group of shops, containing at least one supermarket or superstore and other services, providing for a catchment extending beyond the immediate locality.


Late Night Activity Zone: The area defined on the Policies map predominantly, but not exclusively, the location for Late Night Uses.


Late Night Uses: Nightclubs, Sex Encounter Venues and drinking establishments (Use Class A4 of the present Use Classes Order) which routinely open beyond 12(midnight). Each premise will be assessed on a case-by-case basis as to whether it falls within this category or that of a Hospitality use.


Leisure Uses: D2 class uses in the present Use Classes Order focused on either active indoor sport (e.g. gymnasiums and health clubs), or passive public entertainment (e.g. cinemas, concert halls). This category also includes theatres (Sui Generis).


Life Sciences: Any of several branches of science, such as biology, medicine, anthropology, or ecology, that deals with living organisms and their organisation, life processes, and relationships to each other and their environment.


Listed Building: A building or structure of special historical and/or architectural interest considered worthy of special protection and included and described in the statutory List of such buildings published by English Heritage.


Local Area Agreement (LAA): A three year contract between the Local Authority, Local Strategic Partnership and Central Government to deliver priorities in its Sustainable Community Strategy.


Local Centre: A small group or parade of shops providing a range of everyday shops and services to the local community.


Local Development Framework (LDF): The Local Development Framework (LDF) is the term used to describe the set of documents which include all of the planning authority’s local development documents. This phrase is being phased out and replaced by Local Plan.


Local Development Order: An Order made by a local planning authority (under the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 (as amended)) that automatically grants planning permission for a specific development proposal or classes of development which would otherwise require an application for permission.


Local Development Scheme: The programme and timetable for preparing the documents making up the Local Plan.


Local Enterprise Partnership: A body, designated by the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government, established for the purpose of creating or improving the conditions for economic growth in an area.


Local Nature Partnership: A body, designated by the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, established for the purpose of protecting and improving the natural environment in an area and the benefits derived from it.


Local Plans (known legally as Development Plan Documents): Locally prepared document(s) on a specific topic which form part of the Development Plan and which are subject to independent examination before adoption.


Local Planning Authority: The public authority whose duty it is to carry out specific planning functions for a particular area. Locally these are the District Councils, the Broads Authority and Norfolk County Council.


Local Transport Plan: A five-year integrated transport strategy, prepared by local authorities in partnership with the community, seeking funding to help provide local transport projects. The plan sets out the resources predicted for delivery of the targets identified in the strategy.


Low Car Housing: Development where provision of car parking is less than one space per dwelling.


Main Town Centre Uses: Retail development (including warehouse clubs and factory outlet centres); leisure, entertainment facilities the more intensive sport and recreation uses (including cinemas, restaurants, drive-through restaurants, bars and pubs, night-clubs, casinos, health and fitness centres, indoor bowling centres, and bingo halls); offices; and arts, culture and tourism development (including theatres, museums, galleries and concert halls, hotels and conference facilities).


Material Considerations: Factors which will be taken into account when reaching a decision on a planning application or appeal. Under Section 38 of the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004, decisions on planning applications 'must be made in accordance with the [development] plan unless other material considerations indicate otherwise'. Material considerations include issues regarding traffic, wildlife, economic impacts and the historical interest of the area (this list is not exhaustive). Issues such as the loss of a view or the impact on property values are not material to planning decisions.


Mineral Safeguarding Area: An area designated by a Minerals Planning Authority (Norfolk County Council) which covers known deposits of minerals which are desired to be kept safeguarded from unnecessary sterilisation by non-mineral development.



  • Residential: Moorings where it is permitted to live aboard the moored vessel. These are often leased on a long-term basis from an organisation, for example, a local council or marina.
  • Private: Moorings in private ownership but where it is not permitted to live aboard the vessel moored.
  • Public: Moorings available for the public to use but where it is not permitted to live aboard the vessel moored.

National Cycle Route: A network of national, regional and local cycle routes which are mapped. These include scenic traffic-free paths, quiet roads and lanes, signed on-road routes, and themed long-distance routes.


Nature Improvement Areas: Inter-connected networks of wildlife habitats intended to re-establish thriving wildlife populations and help species respond to the challenges of climate change. See also Green Infrastructure and Biodiversity.


Neighbourhood Development Order: An Order made by a local planning authority through which Parish Councils and neighbourhood forums can grant planning permission for a specific development proposal or classes of development.


Neighbourhood Forum: Community groups designated to take forward neighbourhood planning in areas without parish councils.


Neighbourhood Plans: A plan prepared by a Parish Council or Neighbourhood Forum for a particular neighbourhood area (made under the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004).


Noise Impact Assessment: A process which identifies and evaluates the key noise impacts of a development, or from an existing adjacent or nearby development, for the purposes of informing the planning decision process.


Norwich Area Transportation Strategy (NATS): Statement of strategic transportation policy for Norwich and surrounding area, most recently adopted in 2004.


Norwich Policy Area (NPA): Part of the county (defined for planning purposes in the Joint Core Strategy) which is centred on and strongly influenced by the presence of Norwich as a centre for employment, shopping and entertainment, generally comprising the fringe and first ring of large villages around the city of Norwich, but extending to Long Stratton and Wymondham.


Office Floorspace:

a.      Small and Medium-scale: Premises for small and medium scale businesses means premises which provide a net floorspace of less than 1,500sqm.

b.      Large-scale: Premises for large-scale businesses means premises which provide a net floorspace of more than 1,500sqm.


Older people: People over retirement age, including the active, newly-retired through to the very frail elderly, whose housing needs can encompass accessible, adaptable general needs housing for those looking to downsize from family housing and the full range of retirement and specialised housing for those with support or care needs.

Open space: All open space of public value, including not just land, but also areas of water (such as rivers, canals, lakes and reservoirs) which offer important opportunities for sport and recreation and can act as a visual amenity. Open space includes:

  • parks and gardens;
  • natural and semi-natural urban green space;
  • open space corridors;
  • Informal amenity open space (including civic space and cemeteries and churchyards);
  • formal outdoor recreation;
  • provision for children and young people;
  • allotments;
  • indoor facilities;
  • accessible countryside in the urban fringe.

Original Building: A building as it existed on 1 July 1948 or, if constructed after 1 July 1948, as it was built originally.


Out of Centre: A location which is not in or on the edge of a defined centre but not necessarily outside the urban area.


Out of Town: A location out of centre that is outside the existing urban area.


People with disabilities: People have a disability if they have a physical or mental impairment which has a substantial and long-term adverse effect on their ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities and results in specific needs for housing and/or access to services and facilities, which this plan should help to deliver.

Permitted Development: Certain types of minor changes to houses or businesses can be made without needing to apply for planning permission. These changes can be made under "permitted development rights". They derive from a general planning permission granted not by the local authority but by Parliament. The permitted development rights which apply to many common projects for houses do not apply to flats, maisonettes or other buildings.


Planning condition: A condition imposed on a grant of planning permission (in accordance with the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 (as amended)) or a condition included in a Local Development Order or Neighbourhood Development Order.


Playing Field: The whole of a site which encompasses at least one playing pitch as defined in the Town and Country Planning (Development Management Procedure) (England) Order 2010.


Policies Map: A map illustrating the policies of the Local Plan and the individual allocated sites subject to detailed proposals.


Pollution: Anything that affects the quality of land, air, water or soils, which might lead to an adverse impact on human health, the natural environment or general amenity. Pollution can arise from a range of emissions, including smoke, fumes, gases, dust, steam, odour, noise and light.


Previously Developed Land: Land which is or was occupied by a permanent structure, including the curtilage of the developed land (although it should not be assumed that the whole of the curtilage should be developed) and any associated fixed surface infrastructure. This excludes: land that is or has been occupied by waste disposal by landfill purposes; land in built-up areas such as private residential gardens, parks, recreation grounds and allotments; and land that was previously-developed but where the remains of the permanent structure or fixed surface structure have blended into the landscape in the process of time. See also Brownfield Land/Brownfield Site.


Primary Frontage Zone: An area within the Primary Retail Area defining a specific frontage/group of units.


Primary Retail Area: Defined area where retail development is concentrated (generally comprising the primary and those secondary frontages which are adjoining and closely related to the primary shopping frontage).


Primary and Secondary Frontages (defined): Primary frontages are likely to include a high proportion of retail uses which may include food, drinks, clothing and household goods. Secondary frontages provide greater opportunities for a diversity of uses such as restaurants, cinemas and businesses.


Prioritisation Framework: Criteria providing a framework (for use by Officers and Planning Applications Committee when determining individual planning applications) for ranking requirements for developer contributions which may be covered by planning conditions, s.106 agreements or planning obligations.


Priority habitats and species: Species and Habitats of Principle Importance included in the England Biodiversity List published by the Secretary of State under section 41 of the Natural Environment and Rural Communities Act 2006.


Protected Species: Any species which, because of its rarity or threatened status is protected by statutory legislation (The Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (as amended) and the Conservation (Natural Habitats etc.) Regulations 1994). With regard to Norwich this includes, but is not exclusive to, Bats, reptiles (including grass snakes, common lizards and slow worms), Water Voles, Otters and Badgers.


Public Rights of Way: Public footpath and bridleways as defined in the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000. The phrase ‘rights of way’ include the above and permissive routes where there is no legal right of way but access is permitted by the landowner.


Ramsar sites: Wetlands of international importance, designated under the 1971 Ramsar Convention.


Renewable and low carbon energy: Includes energy for heating and cooling as well as generating electricity. Renewable energy covers those energy flows that occur naturally and repeatedly in the environment – from the wind, the fall of water, the movement of the oceans, from the sun and also from biomass and deep geothermal heat. Low carbon technologies are those that can help reduce emissions (compared to conventional use of fossil fuels).


Retail Assessment/Retail Impact Assessment: An assessment which may be required in connection with major retail proposals assessing their likely effect on patterns of trade and the viability and vitality of existing retail centres.


Section 106 Agreements: Legal agreements entered into under Section 106 of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 (as amended) between a planning authority and a developer, or undertakings offered unilaterally by a developer to ensure that specific works are carried out, payments made or other actions undertaken which would otherwise be outside the scope of the planning permission. Also referred to as Planning Obligations. Section 106 agreements differ to CIL in that whilst they secure monies to be paid to fund infrastructure to support new developments, the agreements are negotiable and not all new development is subject to such agreements.


Safeguarding Zone: An area defined in Circular 01/03 safeguarding uses such as aerodromes.


Scheduled Ancient Monument: Ancient structure, usually unoccupied, above or below the ground, which is preserved by order of the Secretary of State. Works affecting an ancient monument must be approved by the Secretary of State.


Setting of a Heritage Asset: The surroundings in which a Heritage Asset is experienced. Its extent is not fixed and may change as the asset and its surroundings evolve. Elements of a setting may make a positive or negative contribution to the significance of an asset, may affect the ability to appreciate that significance.


Sexual Entertainment Venue: Any premises at which relevant entertainment (relevant entertainment being any live performance or live display of nudity which is of such a nature that, ignoring financial gain, it must reasonably be assumed to be provided solely or principally for the purpose of sexually stimulating any member of an audience) is provided before a live audience for the financial gain of the organiser or the entertainer.


Shared Surface: Streets where people and vehicles share the road space safely and on equal terms with quality of life taking precedence over ease of traffic movement.


Significance (for heritage policy): The value of a Heritage Asset to this and future generations because of its heritage interest. That interest may be archaeological, architectural, artistic or historic. Significance derives not only from a Heritage Asset’s physical presence, but also from its setting.


Site Allocation Plan: A local plan used to identify sites to accommodate the range of land uses necessary to implement the objectives of a Core Strategy.


Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI): Site or area designated as being of national importance because of its wildlife, plants or flower species and/or unusual or typical geological features. SSSIs are identified by Natural England and have protected status under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981.


Special Area of Conservation (SAC): Areas defined in the European Union’s Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC), also known as the Directive on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora. They are defined to protect the 220 habitats and approximately 1,000 species listed in Annex I and II of the directive which are considered to be of European interest following criteria given in the Directive.


Special Protection Areas (SPAs): Protected sites classified in accordance with Article 4 of the EC Birds Directive (1979). They are classified for rare and vulnerable birds (as listed in Annex I of the Directive), and for regularly occurring migratory species.


Site Investigation Information: Includes a risk assessment of land potentially affected by contamination, or ground stability and slope stability reports, as appropriate. All investigations of land potentially affected by contamination should be carried out in accordance with established procedures (such as BS10175 (2001) Code of Practice for the Investigation of Potentially Contaminated Sites). The minimum information that should be provided by an applicant is the report of a desk study and site reconnaissance.


Statement of Community Involvement: Statement setting out how the local planning authority will involve local people in planning and plan making.


Strategic Cycle Network: a core network of cycle routes that extend throughout the urban area and beyond to settlements within cycle communing distance of the city.


Strategic Environmental Assessment: A procedure (set out in the Environmental Assessment of Plans and Programmes Regulations 2004) which requires the formal Environmental Impact Assessment of certain plans and programmes which are likely to have significant effects on the environment.


Street Furniture: Collective term for permanent structures installed within the highway, including footways and pedestrian areas. Includes street lighting columns, signs, seats, litter bins, telephone kiosks, post boxes etc.


Supplementary Planning Document (SPD): Guidance published by the local planning authorities to provide further detailed information on how local plan policies are to be applied or interpreted in order to bring forward sustainable development. SPD may be prepared jointly, particularly where a consistent policy approach is required over an area covered by more than one local planning authority. SPD may be concerned with a particular issue, or it may give more detailed guidance of the development of a specific site, covering a whole range of issues. The latter is frequently referred to as a development brief.


Sustainability Appraisal (SA): An appraisal of the economic, environmental and social effects of a plan from the outset of the preparation process to allow decisions to be made that accord with sustainable development.


Sustainable Community Strategy: Sets out the vision for the area and coordinates and drives the delivery of local services through a Local Strategic Partnership (LSP) (a group of members of the public private and voluntary sectors). Now largely defunct but there are still legislative requirements to implement its aims.


Sustainable Development: The main dimensions of sustainable development as identified in the UK’s strategy for sustainable development (‘a better quality of life, a strategy for sustainable development’ 1999) are as follows:

  • social progress which recognises the needs of everybody;
  • effective protection of the environment;
  • prudent use of natural resources;
  • the maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment.

The NPPF contains a ‘presumption in favour of sustainable development’ requiring plan making to positively seek opportunities to meet the development needs of the area with sufficient flexibility to adapt to rapid change and approve development proposals that accord with the development plan unless material considerations indicate otherwise.


Sustainable Drainage System: Efficient drainage system which seeks to minimise wastage of water, including the use of appropriate groundcover to enable maximum penetration of clean water run-off into the ground and, where appropriate, recycling grey water within the development. Designed to minimise the impact of development on the natural water environment.


Sustainable Transport Modes: Any efficient, safe and accessible means of transport with overall low impact on the environment, including walking and cycling, low and ultra low emission vehicles, car sharing and public transport.


Topic papers: Background documents which provide evidence and explanatory material to support and justify the Local Plan policies.


Town centre: Area defined on the local authority’s Policies map, including the primary shopping area and areas predominantly occupied by main town centre uses within or adjacent to the primary shopping area. References to town centres or centres apply to city centres, town centres, district centres and local centres but exclude small parades of shops of purely neighbourhood significance. Unless they are identified as centres in Local Plans, existing out of centre developments, comprising or including main town centre uses, do not constitute town centres.


Transport assessment: An assessment, that may be required in connection with major development proposals, which looks at how people are likely to access the development and its effects on travel patterns. It will also look at how any undesirable consequences can be mitigated. It should consider how access on foot, by cycle or public transport can be promoted and how the demand for car parking can be minimised.


Transport Statement: A simplified version of a transport assessment where it is agreed the transport issues arising out of development proposals are limited and a full transport assessment is not required.


Travel Information Plan: A document which includes the practical actions to promote sustainable travel, the content of which can then be used on a website or information board to help staff and visitors make informed travel choices, and so reduce dependence on the car.


Travel Plan: A long-term management strategy for an organisation or site that seeks to deliver sustainable transport objectives through action and is articulated in a document that is regularly reviewed.



Aged Tree: Trees that have reached the mature/over-mature phase of their lifespan for their particular species but are not yet old enough to be termed ancient.


Ancient Tree: Trees of interest biologically, aesthetically or culturally because of their great age; Trees in the ancient or third and final stage of their life, and; Trees that are the old relative to others of the same species.


Notable Tree: Trees of local importance or of personal significance to an individual or group are called ‘notable trees’. This includes specimen trees, memorial trees or those considered to be potential, next generation veteran trees.


Veteran Tree: trees that, by recognized criteria, show features of biological, cultural or aesthetic value that are characteristic of, but not exclusive to, individuals surviving beyond the typical age range for the species concerned. NOTE: These characteristics might typically include a large girth, signs of crown retrenchment and hollowing of the stem.


Urban Heat Island: Effect that can lead to a built-up area being significantly warmer than the countryside surrounding it. The main cause of the urban heat island is modification of the land surface by urban development.


Use Classes Order: The Town and Country Planning (Use Classes) Order, 1987, a statutory order made under planning legislation, which groups land uses into different categories (called use classes). Change of within a use class and some changes between classes do not require planning permission.


Viability Assessment: An objective financial viability test of the ability of a development project to meet its costs including the cost of planning obligations/CIL, while ensuring an appropriate site value for the landowner and a market risk adjusted return to the developer in delivering that project.


Wildlife corridor: Areas of habitat connecting wildlife populations.


Windfall site: Site where planning permission for housing development is granted during the plan period but which is not identified in the plan for housing development.

Norwich is a member of the Greater Norwich Growth Board (successor to the Greater Norwich Development Partnership) under which there is a Joint Core Strategy for the Broadland, Norwich and South Norfolk authority areas.